Date : 24 octobre 2023
Date : 27 septembre 2023
saranno presenti Francesco P. Di Teodoro, Emanuela Ferretti e Sabine Frommel
L’incontro sarà occasione per dedicare un breve ricordo a Hermann Schlimme, recentemente scomparso.
Leonardo da Vinci: l’architettura / Léonard de Vinci : l’architecture
a cura di/ sous la direction de : F. P. Di Teodoro, E. Ferretti, S. Frommel, H. Schlimme, Campisano Editore/Éditions Hermann, Roma/Paris 2023
Ce volume relance un débat interdisciplinaire et international sur la relation entre Léonard et l’architecture, un terrain de recherche particulièrement délicat, puisqu’à ce jour aucun bâtiment ne peut lui être attribué avec certitude, au regard des innombrables esquisses de sujets architecturaux (lato sensu) disséminées dans les nombreux folios de son immense héritage. De ce corpus, où s’entremêlent différentes sphères artistiques, scientifiques, philosophiques et littéraires naissent de nouveaux défis.
La recherche sur Léonard est entrée dans une nouvelle phase grâce à celle sur ses contemporains, favorisant une meilleure contextualisation de l’œuvre du maître. Les technologies les plus récentes qui analysent les caractéristiques physico-chimiques des supports, des encres, des pointes métalliques et des pierres, les restitutions graphiques, les modèles virtuels qui vérifient même les hypothèses statiques sont les nouveaux outils d’investigation.
Ce volume représente un cadre ouvert dans lequel, conformément à l’approche de Léonard, les méthodes et les données de différents domaines convergent dans de nouvelles réflexions.
Francesco P. Di Teodoro è professore ordinario di Storia dell’architettura al Politecnico di Torino con affilia-zione anche al Museo Galileo, Firenze. È stato Professore distaccato presso l’Accademia dei Lincei (Centro Linceo Interdisciplinare “B. Segre”). È membro del comitato scientifico del Centro Studi Vitruviani di Fano e della Fondazione Piero della Francesca. Ha curato mostre (Piero della Francesca, 2015 e 2018, Leonardo, 2019, Raffaello, 2020, Federico da Montefeltro, 2022). Si occupa di letteratura architettonica, di filologia del disegno e dei rapporti tra storia dell’arte, della scienza e dell’architettura rinascimentali, concentrando gli interessi sul De architectura di Vitruvio, Brunelleschi, Alberti, Leonardo, Raffaello, Bramante, Piero della Francesca.
Emanuela Ferretti insegna storia dell’architettura all’Università degli Studi di Firenze. Le sue ricerche si concentrano sul cantiere storico e sul rapporto fra committenti e architetti nel Rinascimento. La presenza della storia nell’architettura del Novecento costituisce un altro ambito dei suoi studi. Nel 2012 è stata fellow a Villa I Tatti – The Harvard University Center for Italian Renaissance Studies con un progetto sugli acquedotti e le fontane nella Toscana del Cinquecento.
Sabine Frommel est directrice d’études à la chaire d’Histoire de l’Art de la Renaissance de l’École Pratique des Hautes Études-PSL (Paris Sciences & Lettres) depuis 2003. De 2013 à 2015, elle a été professeur invité à l’Università di Bologna (Dipartimento di Filologia Classica e Italianistica). Elle s’intéresse aux grands architectes de la Renaissance italienne, à l’évolution des typologies et des langages architecturaux des XVe et XVIe siècles, aux processus de migration des formes et des motifs artistiques en Europe, à la représentation de l’architecture dans la peinture, à la fortune de la Renaissance jusqu’au XIXe siècle, ainsi qu’à la naissance et au développement de la discipline de l’histoire de l’architecture. Depuis 2020, elle est membre correspondant de l’Académie des beaux-arts.
Hermann Schlimme è stato professore ordinario di Storia dell’architettura e dell’urbanistica alla Technische Universität Berlin. Ha diretto la ricerca “Storia del sapere in architettura” presso la Bibliotheca Hertziana di Roma. È stato guest professor alla Technische Universität di Vienna (2014-2016). È stato co-editore di “Construction History. International Journal of the Construction History Society” (Cambridge) e membro dei comitati scientifici dei “International Congresses on Construction History”. Ha diretto per la TU Berlin il Dual Degree Master Architecture Program (Laurea Magistrale) con Tsinghua University, Beijing. Si è occupato di storia dell’architettura nell’Italia del primo evo moderno, di Cina-Europa, di storia del sapere in architettura e della storia dell’architettura del XX e XXI secolo. Muore il 6 agosto 2023 a Capalbio.
Cet article a initialement été publié Brenda Lee Bohen
The activities of the famous Florentine master in this discipline have been understudied, simply because his ideas did not manifest into actual buildings, says Professor Sabine Frommel. Many his drawings show us that he continually invented architectural projects inspired by the more illustrious contemporary architects in Florence, Milan, and Rome.
Leonardo is known as one of the most famous painters — the Joconde in the Louvre is without a doubt a major international attraction — admired because of its precise analysis of anatomy and natural sciences, demonstrating bold technical inventiveness, seemingly a prefiguration of recent discoveries in mechanics and technology. His restless creative energy shifted from one field to another without concern for boundaries, enabling the advancement of spectacular experimentations. However, little is known of his architectural competencies, documented by an important number of sketches and drawings, scattered in different manuscripts, and often difficult to date, though as Frommel explains, a discernible thread runs throughout his career.
Famous patrons such as Lodovico Sforza, Cesare Borgia, Charles d’Amboise and Francis I greatly appreciated his proposals and projects. The fact that Leonardo did not actually construct buildings does not minimize his role as an architect, since during the Renaissance ideas and designs were considered autonomous, established standards and principles, and not entirely dependent on materialization. Leonardo considered architecture to be part of a total all-encompassing organism, an integration of buildings, gardens, hydraulic installations, ephemeral art and even flora and fauna.
An unexplored avenue to consider that is persistent in the history of art and architecture is the purposeful art of hybridation especially in the field of architecture. To explore this lacuna, I met with Professor Sabine Frommel at the Piazza della Rotonda in Rome for a coffee discussing Leonardo Da Vinci and his architectural contributions, which are less known.
In the Balcony Room in the Vatican Museums there is a large Latin inscription on the wall which states that the great Leonardo da Vinci was invited by the Florentine Pope Leo X to use these rooms, as well as others at the Belvedere Palace as his workshop and residence. Leonardo lived in the Vatican from 1513 to 1516. When did he become interested in architecture and what’s the story?
Professor Sabine Frommel:
His interest in architecture begins in Florence at the time of Lorenzo de’ Medici who promoted a renewal of architecture. Antique prototypes, the treatise of Vitruvius and its interpretation by the humanist Leon Battista Alberti, the spiritus rector of young Lorenzo, and the concepts of the pioneers of Neoplatonism were the main references. Churches organized with strong centralized plans, the “sacralization” of private architecture, urban planning aligned with Renaissance principles, harmonious proportions, and a classicizing language, changed the physiognomy of buildings. The Manuscript B (Institut de France), conceived at the court of Lodovico Sforza at Milan between 1487–90, and sheets contained in the heterogenous Codex Atlanticus, show the way Leonardo reacted to such challenges. He tried to associate antique models with the functional requirements of Christian liturgy in a new way: the altar is situated at the center below a cupola and surrounded by tiers derived from the Roman amphitheatre. In his design of an ideal city, he plans to restructure Milan, which was affected by the plague, on two levels, with an upper level distinguished by elegant palaces for rich habitants including porticoes, avenues, canals, bridges, and gardens, and a lower one devoted to infrastructure, the transport of goods by boat, deliveries to the palaces, and evacuation of harmful substances. At the same time this ambitious design is meant as an emphatical celebration of the power of the prince. His more meticulous project conceived during his first stay at Milan refers to the competition of the cathedral of Milan whose crossing had be crowned by the typical Lombard tiburio, like a tower. Leonardo proposed a cupola with two shells recalling Brunelleschi’s masterpiece of cathedral of Florence — a proposal which was incongruent with the local patrons’ traditions.
After the expulsion of the Sforza by the French king Louis XII in 1499 Leonardo returned to Florence, and it seems that in April 1505, he came to Rome just in time when an intensive debate with Bramante and Michelangelo was taking place regarding the reconstruction of the Basilica of St. Peter’s by Julius II. As a specialist of centralized churches, he may have reinforced the position of Bramante, his close colleague from the years in Milan, and argued for such a building type, which evidently was not suitable to accommodate the “storm” of believers that would gather in this major church of Christendom. At the center of the choir Michelangelo’s gigantic tomb for the pope was to be raised. A drawing from the Codex on the Flight of Birds from 1505/1506 reveals that Leonardo had been highly influenced by recent Roman architecture: Bramante’s Palazzo Caprini, Giuliano da Sangallo’s combination of an attic and pediment proposed for the Loggia of the trumpet players at the Piazza San Pietro as well as Baldassarre Peruzzi’s loggia vestibulum at the Farnesina, built for the super-rich banker Agostino Chigi. His projects from the second stay in Milan from 1506 to 1513 show how greatly impacted he was by these impressions, mainly in terms of his design for the major representatives of the French king in Lombardy, the villa of Charles d’Amboise near Milan, the funeral monument of Gian Giacomo Trivulzio, where one of his projects ties to the tempietto of Bramante and the narrative dialogue between architectural order and human figures in the representation of slaves of the tomb of Julius II by Michelangelo. The relationship between building and nature, and the interactions of scenic effects, were major concerns for Leonardo. After leaving Milan in 1512 he spent a sojourn at the villa of his pupil Francesco Melzi, the marvelous site above the river Adda, which inspired him to design an extension marked by a most impactful silhouette of contrasting bodies, roofs, cupolas, and lanterns.
In 1513, a short time after the triumphal return of the dynasty after an exile of eighteen years, Leonardo met his patron Giuliano de’ Medici in Florence. A sketch of Leonardo proposes an urban reconstruction of the surroundings of the San Lorenzo, the mausoleum of the Medici. The ascension to the papal throne of Leo X, Giovanni de’ Medici, seemed to evoke the promise of new perspectives. Nevertheless, things did not develop for Leonardo in the most propitious manner. The famous artist had to accept a marginal role in the shadow of Michelangelo and Raphael, and after the death of Bramante, it was Raphael who became the leading master of the huge building-site even though he was relatively inexperienced. The situation worsened even more after the death of Giuliano de’ Medici in 1516.
Are there any drawings of Da Vinci’s architecture?
Professor Sabine Frommel:
Leonardo da Vinci left several hundred architectural drawings, mostly simple sketches, rarely accompanied by written inscriptions, and often interwoven with each other. This graphic production, representing different stages of his thought processes, remains a challenge for the research. Some of the drawings can be linked to identifiable projects, but most of them are related to personal research: central plan churches, palaces and villas, fortifications, staircases with several ascents, ideal cities, ephemeral architecture, and more. These drawings reveal that he followed certain contemporary trends, but also indicate that he developed projects according to his personal taste, far from any stylistic tendencies of the time.
The coherent group of central plan churches in Ms. B shows that he preferred to associate the ground-plans of a building with bird’s-eye perspectives. This technique, which no other master had employed at the time, highlights Leonardo’s vision, and his focus on the interplay of the function of the interior spaces with the plastic volumes of the building. About 1508 he adopts the triad of plan/section/elevation that was already used by some architects prior, and then recommended by Raphael in the “Letter to Leo X” (1518–19). In accordance with the methods of his time he also used wooden models as a tool to improve and refine projects. Some architectural drawings show his progress, featuring greater complexity in the rhythm of the façade and a more uncanonical behavior in the composition of details.
In the end, the circulation of his ideas, among the illustrious architects like Baldassarre Peruzzi, Michelangelo, Antonio da Sangallo il Giovane, and the milieu of Giulio Romano, who assimilated and elaborated particular aspects of his inventions, has ensured a long and enduring Nachleben.
What brought Leonardo to France? Was there a leading architect of Chambord and how and why Leonardo’s proposals were so radically changed. Who was Leonardo competing with and against?
Professor Sabine Frommel:
The death of his last Italian patron Giuliano de’ Medici in 1516, and perhaps the loss of status afforded to our illustrious protagonist, as well as his advanced age of 64, contributed to his acceptance of Francis I’s invitation to work in France. It was veritably the pinnacle of his career. With the title as a First Painter, Engineer, and Architect of the King (Premier peintre, ingénieur et architecte du roi) he benefited from an annual pension of 1,000 gold coins and was allowed to dedicate himself to his own research. The marvelous project of a residence at Romorantin, commissioned mainly by Louise of Savoy, the mother of the king, remained a vision on paper; it clearly reveals the difficulties faced by the master as he tried to assimilate French traditions, rooted in medieval principles and techniques, highly dependent on the rules of the court, its ceremonies and social life. Francis I had decided then to build a fairy-tale-like castle at Chambord, and it seems that Leonardo inspired the king with his preliminary design of this astonishing building, most significantly the impressive spiral staircase at the heart of the centralized plan. Additionally, he further impressed the court with his wonderful ephemeral decorations for feasts and theatrical events, a facility he had perfected while working under Lodovico Sforza.
Who were the local, French, designers, architects he was competing with? Was it the local craftsmen who changed his designs? Probably not. Craftsmen usually follow orders of a master. Was Leonardo not the master of the project? Was he just an advisor? And outside the system advisor?
Professor Sabine Frommel:
It seems that during his long career in Italy Leonardo had never been inclined to supervise building sites and control the work of masons, stonecutters, and carpenters. His prodigious creativity is the result of a free flow of ideas and inventions, independent from external obligations. Sources like Benvenuto Cellini suggest that he had intimate dialogues with the young Francis I, and most certainly they spoke often about the new spectacular buildings. In France, an autonomous status of the architect did not yet exist. The royal building sites were managed by high-ranking officials from the nobility, commissaire, treasurer and controlleur, who directed local craftsmen that had worked on the prestigious royal constructions of the predecessor Louis XII. They were associated with the powerful guilds and trained in the trades and practices required to erect the late Gothic cathedrals. Thus, there was no competition between Leonardo, the author of the ideas and sketches, and those who were responsible for the actual execution of the castle. It may be that Domenico da Cortona, a Tuscan master active in France since 1495, experienced in French language, building techniques and architectural models, was an intermediary during the transmission of Leonardo’s concepts and the organization of the construction site.
We now think of Leonardo Da Vinci as the ‘best’ , but did his contemporaries in France also think of him as the premier polymath of his time? What popular style in France at the time was he competing against?
Professor Sabine Frommel:
Leonardo’s reputation was founded mainly on his paintings and his prestige as “uomo universale” in the humanistic sense. He lived in the Clos Lucé near by the royal castle of Amboise, where a colony of Italian artists had settled after the first Italians crossed the Alps with Charles VIII in 1495. Illustrious masters like Fra Giocondo and Guido Mazzoni had come to France and so the employment of Leonardo was far from an isolated phenomenon. Accompanied by his pupils, Francesco Melzi and Salai, and his servant Batista del Vilanis, he brought his most famous paintings, manuscripts, and drawings to France. After having been in Italy a kind of “prophet who had no honour”, he now enjoyed the ideal conditions of a real court artist, one of the first to embody this status in modern time. As an old and highly esteemed man he certainly evoked an air of mystery and glory, while his presence was especially appreciated because of his skillful ephemeral creations for meetings, feasts, and theatre. We can imagine that he was astonished by the traditional artistic climate in his host country where late Gothic forms and techniques held firm, and thus tried to introduce the principles of symmetry in a place where Italian influence had yet to be assimilated.
In conclusion with my interview with Professor Sabine Frommel, I took this
opportunity to discuss one Leonardo’s Da Vinci’s distinctive style in architecture found on the far-right portion of his unfinished Saint Jerome (c. 1482, Oil on wood, 103 x 74 cm) located in Room IX in the Vatican Museum’s Pinacoteca (picture gallery).
According to the official website of the Vatican Museums, ‘no information is available as to the destination of the painting and who commissioned it.’ The church façade stands out in the far-right upper background. The origins and the background scene of this Saint Jerome painting in the Vatican are all very mysterious. Can you share some light on this unfinished work?
Professor Sabine Frommel:
The Saint Jerome in the Pinacoteca of the Vatican, which also remained unfinished, had been conceived by Leonardo during the same period as the Adoration of the Magi (Uffizi), so just before his departure from Florence to Milan in 1482. Nothing is known about details of the commission. The representation of the father of the church and important author of late antiquity as an ascetic in the desert was a favored subject of the time. The saint inclines his head, probably in direction of a crucifix, while in the upper right-hand side of the panel one notes a small three-dimensional representation of a church. The façade is reminiscent of Santa Maria Novella in Florence, a significant prototype of sacred architecture in the second half of the fifteenth century, finished in 1470 according to the project of Leon Battista Alberti. It is a somewhat anachronistic addition, but probably aims, as in the case of the Adoration of the Magi, to anchor the scene in the present imaginary and to evoke the church as the institution of the Christian believers (or better “congregation”?). The choice of an Albertian model corresponds to the “esprit” of the time since the famous humanist was considered a pioneer of the architectural renewal in Florence, and Angelo Poliziano, who prepared the publication of the editio princeps of his treatise in 1485, dedicated the text to Lorenzo de’ Medici. For Leonard himself this treatise become an important source of his architectural studies.
My compliments to you and your colleague’s recent publication
Léonard de Vinci: l’architecture: Leonardo da Vinci: l’architettura (ed. Francesco di Teodoro, Emanuela Ferretti, Sabine Frommel, Hermann Schilmme, Campisano Editore/Éditions Hermann, Roma/Paris, 2022). There is no doubt that Da Vinci is one of the leading Renaissance artists of his time and throughout history (and always competing with Michelangelo) or even better “the premier polymath of his time” as my friend art historian Elizabeth Whiting from Chicago brilliantly sums up Da Vinci.
Date : 16 juin 2023
SEMINAIRE DE RECHERCHE
VENDREDI 16 JUIN 2023, 10H00-12H00, ÉCOLE DU LOUVRE, SALLE DÜRER (place du Carrousel, Porte Jaujard)
Andrea Bacchi, directeur de la Fondation Federico Zeri
Marie-Christine Labourdette, présidente du Château de Fontainebleau, ancienne directrice des Musées de France
Françoise Mardrus, directrice des Études muséales et de l’Appui à la recherche du Musée du Louvre
Séance dirigée par Jean-Miguel Pire chercheur à l’EPHE
Le vendredi 16 juin à 10h00 aura lieu à l’École du Louvre la séance de clôture du séminaire « L’Histoire de l’art comme savoir oral et visuel », un séminaire de recherche issu du partenariat entre l’École du Louvre et l’équipe Histara. La séance sera dirigée par Jean-Miguel Pire (chercheur à l’EPHE) et se déroulera sous forme de table-ronde, en présence de Claire Barbillon (directrice de l’École du Louvre) et de Sabine Frommel (directrice de l’équipe Histara). Interviendront : Andrea Bacchi (directeur de la Fondation Federico Zeri), Marie-Christine Labourdette (présidente du Château de Fontainebleau, ancienne directrice des Musées de France), Françoise Mardrus (directrice des Études muséales et de l’Appui à la recherche du Musée du Louvre).
« Depuis le milieu du XXe siècle, de nombreuses institutions scientifiques, muséales et culturelles se sont engagées dans la production de contenus sonores ou audiovisuels sur l’art – cours, conférences, colloques, entretiens, interviews, séries documentaires, etc. – dont l’apport à l’histoire de notre discipline réclame une analyse approfondie. Ce séminaire souhaite mettre à l‘honneur cette forme singulière de construction des savoirs en explorant les enjeux historiographies, institutionnels et patrimoniaux à l’œuvre dans la constitution, la conservation et la valorisation de ces fonds documentaires. L’étude d’un large panel d’exemples français et étrangers permettra ainsi d’engager une enquête sur l’histoire et les usages scientifiques de ces ressources, enquête à laquelle seront conviés des universitaires, des acteurs du monde culturel et des professionnels de l’audiovisuel »
Accès tout public sur inscription impérative à l’adresse : https://forms.gle/qzu5ccW9RLCzr1Hz7
Date : 21 avril 2023
LECTURE AND BOOK PRESENTATION
Sabine Frommel, Director of Studies, Histoire de l’art de la Renaissance, École Pratique des Hautes Études – PSL
Carmen Bambach, Marica F. and Jan T. Vilcek Curator, Department of Drawings and Prints, Metropolitan Museum of Art
Francesco Benelli, Associate Professor, Dipartimento delle Arti, Alma Mater Studiorum – Università di Bologna
Michael J. Waters, Assistant Professor, Department of Art History and Archaeology, Columbia University
As this workshop will take place in the study room at Avery Library to give participants the opportunity to examine and discuss the architectural drawings of Leonardo da Vinci and his contemporaries using facsimiles, space is limited. If you would like to attend, please register here : https://forms.gle/CNV6VvumG1fJHwDBA
Date : 13 décembre 2022
|Introdotti dal Presidente della Fondazione, Cristina Acidini, presenteranno il volume Sabine Frommel, Laura de Fuccia,, Michel Hochmann e Eva Renzulli.|
L’evento può essere seguito in diretta su piattaforma Zoom. Per partecipare è necessario registrarsi qui
Dopo l’iscrizione verrà inviata una mail di conferma con le informazioni per collegarsi alla presentazione.
Per informazioni email@example.com
Fondazione di Studi di Storia dell’Arte Roberto Longhi
Via Benedetto Fortini 30 – 50125 Firenze
Tel. e Fax +39 055 6580794
Date : 5 décembre 2022
L’Association France- Italie fondée en 1926, chargée de mettre en relief les liens culturels entre les deux pays, a décidé de créer un prix annuel pour récompenser un ouvrage scientifique d’histoire de l’art.
Pour son 1er prix, décerné en 2022, le jury a choisi un important ouvrage dédié à la correspondance d’André Chastel, grand historien de l’art français (1912 – 1990), qui se spécialisa dans l’art italien, avec les grands savants et historiens de son temps : André Chastel et l’Italie, 1947-1990, lettres choisies et annotées, par Laura De Fuccia et Eva Renzulli (2019).
Ces deux historiennes de l’art travaillant entre la France et l’Italie présenteront la publication à l’occasion de la remise du prix.
Date : 19 septembre 2022
S. Frommel e J.P. Garric (a cura di), I disegni di Charles Percier 1764-1838. Toscana, Umbria e Marche nel 1791, Campisano Editore, Roma 2021
Introduction : Claudio Strinati.
Intervenants : Alberta Campitelli, Claudia Conforti, Carmelo Occhipinti.
Les directeurs de la série de publication Disegni di Charles Percier (1764-1838), Sabine Frommel et Jean-Philippe Garric, seront présents.
Entrée gratuite dans la limite des places disponibles.
Réservation obligatoire par mail : réservation@accademiasanluca.it
Dopo un primo volume dedicato all’Emilia Romagna, si pubblicano i disegni che Charles Percier (Parigi, 1764-1838) ha eseguito durante la sua breve permanenza in Toscana e nel suo passaggio in Umbria e nelle Marche, mettendo a fuoco un ulteriore aspetto della sua ricca produzione grafica durante gli oltre quattro anni trascorsi in Italia. I disegni sono una sorta di enciclopedia personale. Non furono realizzati unicamente come ricordo dei luoghi più notevoli che Percier ebbe l’opportunità di visitare, ma si pongono come un vero e proprio strumento professionale, cui fare ricorso per ideare libri, nutrire riflessioni da architetto e il proprio lavoro di progettazione, illustrare idee ai numerosi studenti. Alla fine della sua vita Percier fece rilegare i disegni in volumi tematici, e li lasciò in eredita ai suoi allievi, che poi li donarono alla Biblioteca dell’Institut de France dove tutt’ora si conservano. Il soggiorno in Toscana di Percier è di poco successivo alla partenza da Roma, tappa del viaggio a piedi che nel 1791 lo riportò a Parigi. Si presenta come una parentesi che gli permette, in margine al percorso principale che attraversa Spoleto, Campello sul Clitunno, Foligno, Loreto, Ancona, Pesaro, Fano, Tolentino, Macerata e Recanati, di visitare Radicofani, San Quirico d’Orcia, Siena, Arezzo, e soprattutto Firenze, città alla quale dedica più di sessanta disegni. A segnare questo viaggio nell’architettura furono le precedenti esperienze romane, che consentirono a Percier di maturare e affinare progressivamente l’esercizio del rilievo e di perfezionare la sua tecnica, caratterizzata dal tratteggio a lapis, poi ripassato a penna e infine ad acquerello. Questo prezioso, seducente corpus grafico, oltre a offrire le prime testimonianze note di alcuni monumenti e a documentare spazi urbani di notevole importanza, attesta il gusto, gli interessi e lo sguardo eclettico di un giovane architetto francese della fine del Settecento. Uno sguardo che abbraccia un ampio arco cronologico, dall’antico al periodo moderno, accordando particolare interesse alle prime manifestazioni del Rinascimento, privilegiandone la dimensione arcaica che aveva già suscitato il suo interesse nello studio di case e palazzi del Quattrocento romano. Per rispondere a questa polisemia, il presente volume si arricchisce di analisi storiche complementari, riunendo specialisti della storia di Firenze, della Toscana e delle varie località visitate da Percier, dell’arte edilizia del Rinascimento, della cultura e della pratica architettonica francesi ed europee nell’età rivoluzionaria e napoleonica.